27 Fevral 2020, Cümə axşamı

There is no need to prove anyone  that  Nakhchivan has ancient history. Historical monuments  erected eternally in the lap of this land witnessed  the great history  of Nakhchivan for millenniums. At different times though these historical monuments were destructed for this or other reasons, no power  was enough to wipe off and throw it away from  history and  from the  lap of nature. Though centenaries and garinas  passed, our monuments –alive witness of  history  now got their  real mark, have occupied their highest moral place in people’s mind.  After the decree  dated 2005, December 6, issued by the Chief of  Supreme Majlis of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic  titled “ About the organization of  protection and passportization of historical and cultural monuments in the territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic” more than 1200 historical and cultural monuments were registered and passportized in autonomous republic, most of them were restored fundamentally and got the right to survive. Castles among these monuments have an appropriate place.

    The research works done in Autonomous Republic suggest that  Nakhchivan is a land rich in castle type lodgings. The chief of Nakhchivan section of  ANSA (Azerbaijan National Science Academy) academic Ismail Hjiyev writes that castle type lodgings in Nakhchivan  appeared in III millennium before our era and in later periods these castle type lodgings were widely used. In Medieval centuries , castle type lodgings  were the point of important reference in  the struggle of Azerbaijani people against invaders , local people built defense castles in order to protect themselves.

Such castles were usually constructed on natural rocks. As an example for this it is possible to indicate  Alinjagala, Oglangala, Chalkhangala, Berdigala, Galajig, Gazanchigala, Vaykhirgala, Nahajirgala, Ordubad castle  and the like. Taking generally, according to the researches done, nearly 80 castles were determined in the territory of Nakchchivan. In autonomous republic which has not got so large area , the existence of so many castles gives information about very strict facts. Firstly, though the castles were built to  protect the people  from foreign invaders , it simply did not bear the character of self-defense. Castles, firstly, are the indicators of first lodgings. On the  other hand, historical monuments of this type appeared as a result of  peoples’ internal needs, military and economic power . Historic sources suggest that Nakhchivan castles represent  our ancestors’ life style lived here from the remote past, their religious beliefs, statehood traditions, culture and architecture art and reached our modern  period. In autonomous republic  one of the most attractive factors in castle type lodgings in autonomous republic is the existence of castle like cities in the area. Archeological researches show that  formation of  castle-cities dates back to  five thousand years before and such constructions  were chiefly  settled in river valleys where the trade and  craftsmanship had widely been  spread . This fact  itself  gives information about the magnificent past of  Nakhchivan land as one of the main hearths of the world , as well as, Eastern civilization. Today we have apt facts in our hands about the existence of ancient castle-cities as  Kultapa II, Nakhchivan, Shahtakhti, Gizgala, Gizilburun, Gazanchigala. These facts play an irreplaceable  role in enlightening historical-cultural past of  Azerbaijan, in general, Southern Caucasus and Near East. From the educational and canvassing point of view, monuments of this type have exceptional significance  in tourism potential of Nakhchivan.

    The development of cultural tourism is specific for  regions having such rich potentiality in the world. It is necessary to note that cultural tourism is a destination which involves  intellectual people’s circle of  interest. Unlike other massive types of tourism, the tourists showing interest to this field find it more interesting not  to read  history  from books, they prefer to feel it in reality. At present  10 per cent of tourism is occupied by mountain and pedestrian tourism. Though these tourism types , to some extent, bear resemblance to cultural tourism , in the second elite people  amateur ones constitute the majority. Even now the organization of scientific conferences and symposiums open a lot of possibilities to the tourist flow  in the countries where there are a number of antique cultural monuments . In the travels of this type to be close to ancient civilization “ to take a photo with the past” is one of the nuances which satisfies the tourists. In one of our previous articles we emphasized the existence of  sufficient suitable conditions. Specially, the researches done in Oglangala  lodging show that this land  witnessed  rich historic ages. The areas  specific with the most ancient constructions as Oglangala, Nakhchivangala, Galajig,  Azad Kiran  were political and cultural centers, as well as, were the places where the traditions of State system formed. The places became the main target of  civilization where there are the traditions of State system. The most suitable way of preserving such rich historic potential and  making  propaganda  is the coordination  of  the objects of this type with tourism. In recent years measure carried out in this field in autonomous republic  are rejoicing. On the basis of  Plan of  Measures with the decree dated  2011, 7 June , issued by the chief of Supreme Majlis of  Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic titled “ About having an International Symposium with the theme  Nakhchivan : as a first lodging and town-building place” , fundamental restoration work was implemented and a museum was established in Nakhchivangala located  in the territory of Nakhchivan city which has significant historical monuments. The organization of public catering services in “Nakhchivangala”  in the Complex of Historic-Architectural Museum in recent years, the opening of the shop containing handicraft, simultaneously  the selection of that place for the organization of massive cultural measures had a positive impact on the increase of the tourists who visit here. One of the most remembered events is the opening of  Alijagala. Alinjagala which witnessed important political happenings in Medieval centuries of Azerbaijan  history and  was  a symbol of our people’s struggle is a monument  distinguished with the protected ideas of State system, military-strategic and economic-political  position . Alinjagala which is more than two thousand years old, has opened its doors to the tourists today. Now the tourists coming here meet  not only pride walls of the castle, but also heroism soul of our people and their binding love to motherland. Alinja castle today  is an epos of  heroism  for literary critics, a marvelous nature landscape for the painters and is an  mysterious past for the historians which hasn’t been revealed yet. There are many tourists, travelers and figures of science and culture  who are interested in learning this past.

   Nakhchivan castles have become a symbol of our people’s struggle  traditions on these lands for millenniums. Revival of our castles is an excellent sample of the respect for our historical past, the restoration of our mural memory.

                                                                    Author:  Sabuhi Hasanov

                                                                   Translator: Javid Babayev


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